Iain Brash interview, 7 September 2012, 14 September 2012 and 21 September 2012

Dublin Core


Iain Brash interview, 7 September 2012, 14 September 2012 and 21 September 2012




Iain and his wife Elizabeth arrived by ship to Fremantle on 22 January 1961. Iain was appointed as assistant to John Hayward (“Josh”) Reynolds. Iain taught history at UWA for 48 years. Iain officially retired in 2001 but only finished teaching at the end of 2008. At this time he was working as a Senior Honorary Teaching Fellow supervising PhD students. Iain was Head of Department from 1981-1983 and again from 1997 to 2000. Iain particularly enjoyed teaching Honours students and was nominated by his students for the Excellence in Teaching Award that he won in 1994.


Brash, Iain


University of Western Australia Historical Society


Copyright holder University of Western Australia


MP3 files


Oral History

Oral History Item Type Metadata


Julia Wallis


Iain Brash


Shenton Park, W.A.


Interview 1: 1 hour 5 minutes 23 seconds
Interview 2: 1 hour 6 minutes 21 seconds
Interview 3: 1 hour 32 minutes 45 seconds
Total: 3 hours 44 minutes 23 seconds

Bit Rate/Frequency

128 kbs

Time Summary

Interview 1

Track 1
00:00 Introduction

Track 2
00:00 Full name and DOB. Scottish family background.
01:29 Parents in London as a direct result of Great Depression.
01:53 William Denny & Brothers Shipyard, Dumbarton. Father then joins Metropolitan Police.
03:00 Mother’s mother was a primary school teacher. Iain’s mother worked in parents’ newsagent and tobacconist shop until she married and moved to London.
03:45 Mother and son moved back to Scotland during Second World War. Iain went to Knoxland Primary School, Dumbarton, Scotland from 1940-6. Very good primary education.
04:36 Lived with grandparents. Father re-joined family after the War.
05:13 Took 11+ examination in England as well as the Scottish equivalent, the Qualifying, just in case the family returned to Scotland.
05:52 The family remained living in Erith, Kent and Iain attended the local grammar school for his secondary education from 1947-1955. A very good school. Excellent teachers in history and English literature. Took a broad range of subjects for “O” level in 1952 aged 16, and 4 “A” level subjects. He also took 2 subjects for Scholarship level (history and Eng Lit). Awarded State Scholarship.
07:20 Had a 3rd year (aged 19) to take Scholarship exams for entry level to Oxford or Cambridge. He was accepted into Balliol College, Oxford which had strong Scottish connections.
08:40 Laid the ground work for his eventual post at UWA. Realised at university studying modern history that he wanted an academic career. Other job options might have been a career at the Bar or as a civil servant or librarian.
11:06 Very good historians at Balliol at the time including his tutor and mentor Christopher Hill, a Marxist historian and Richard Southern, the medieval historian.
11:27 Only 2 public exams at Oxford and then Finals. The colleges maintained their own exams. Iain and 4 others had the best results in the Prelims were invited to enter for one of the university prize essay competitions. Iain wrote an essay for the Gladstone Memorial Prize in 1959. All four won the prizes.
13:08 There was no Honours dissertation at Oxford at the time. Spent his second year doing research as a result of winning the Gladstone prize. A prestigious award and he thinks that it helped him get the post at UWA.
14:45 Gladstone prize winner given the duty of presenting part of this essay at the awards ceremony for conferring of degrees at the Sheldonian theatre.
17:02 Iain was expected to get a 1st but got a 2nd but he thinks winning the Gladstone may have made up for this.
17:52 Did national service in a Scottish regiment. Moving between England and Scotland meant he was turned down for a studentship to do postgrad study. He began to apply for positions abroad and wrote to the Master of the College to ask his advice. He also asked his senior tutor, A B Rogers who had taught Fred Alexander in the 1920s. He was advised to do so and applied for jobs in Queensland and Christchurch, New Zealand.
20:43 Left in summer of 1950 and started looking for jobs in August and asked his college for references. As luck would have it, Fred Alexander at UWA was looking for a Senior Tutor with a 3 year appointment who might then be suitable to be appointed to a lectureship.
23:17 Shortly afterwards Fred Alexander sent Iain a long letter of explanation.
24:11 Iain informed UWA that he was engaged to be married and was sent a cable, with a job offer of 1,500 Australian pounds and a first class fare to Fremantle by ship.
25:28 Further letters then came with advice on what to bring and Mrs Alexander also advised Iain’s wife Elizabeth on what clothes to bring.
26:11 Fred Alexander was on the point of leaving for study leave in India.
26:26 Iain and Elizabeth married on 22 December 1960 and embarked from Tilbury 8 days later on 30th. The arrived into Fremantle on 22 January 1961.
26:47 Iain and Elizabeth did not look beyond the 3 year appointment. It was an adventure but they had no firm plans to stay in Perth. Re-appointments were made every 3 years.

Track 3
00:00 Arrival into Fremantle early in the morning on a hot Sunday. Met by Frank Crowley (Acting Head of Department) and Robert Orr, lecturer in politics. Almost passed the ship taking Professor Alexander to India in Colombo Harbour. Wrote letter that he tried to send via the purser but the letter did not reach Iain until a month after he arrived.
02:03 Drove them up Stirling Highway. Lots of advertising signage. View of tower of Winthrop Hall.
03:11 Fred Alexander had arranged accommodation for 6 weeks in an apartment at The Mansions, 74 Mounts Bay Road. This cost 8 guineas a week. Frank Crowley thought it was too expensive.
05:19 Waiting at the flat, having set it up for them, was Marjorie Horrocks.
05:36 They were then shown around the campus. Lots of open space and buildings in progress. Superb grounds.
06:56 Fred Alexander had sent the Iain a brochure so he knew what to expect.
07:20 They were also sent a pamphlet by Joe Gentilli which detailed information on the climate.
08:27 Department housed in Chancery building and was a bit cramped. Iain shared a room with another recent arrival, Leslie Marchant who had come back from studying aboard to teach a course in Pacific history. Later Iain shared a room with Peter Reeves, an Indian specialist came in 1963
09:29 Ivo Schoffer was a Dutch historian who taught the first year course in 16th and 17th century Europe. He was located in Fairway.
09:46 Some people in other departments had their rooms in the Tower at Winthrop Hall. It was a period of expansion and they were running out of space to put people.
10:16 Employed (1 to assist John (“Josh”) Reynolds with tutoring for the Tudor and Stuart first year course and after the first term, to take over the organisation of the course; (2) to work with Ivo Schoffer in the early modern course 16th – 17th century and take some tutorials there; (3) teach a joint seminar with Fred Alexander in the third year course on modern history (from French revolution to WWI). An old fashioned course that had been taught for years.
12:00 IB to also give 3 lectures on Italian history in the 19th century and do some work on 19th century British history (Gladstone connection)
12:25 Not long after IB arrived he was also asked to be editor of University Studies in West Australian History.
12:35 Fantastic opportunity to obtain a wide range of experience very rapidly.
13:10 One of the first things IB asked (and detailed in the letter Fred Alexander tried to send via the ship’s purser) was to tutor external students (mainly WA country school teachers). FA had set up a course for them to come into Perth to have lectures and tutorials before school term started. This was to commenced 8 days after IB arrived (and he was informed of this request by Frank Crawley). He was to give a lecture on the main trends in British foreign policy from 1784 to 1914.
15:13 Les Johnson from the Education Department was in charge of the External students.
16:18 Quite a lot of IB’s school curriculum was equivalent of a Perth student’s first two years at university so he was well ahead of the game.
17:02 Did a special subject with Christopher Hill at Oxford on Cromwell and the Protectorate which also helped IB to get the position at UWA. He was not too specialist and had a good general and quite varied background in history.
17:28 In the middle of the year Ivo Schoffer was appointed Chair at Leiden, Netherland and IB took over his course and became a lecturer and took over the running of that course as well. At the end of the year he was made permanent. A pretty rapid promotion.
18:20 This followed a similar pattern for the next few years. Dropped the European history and didn’t do it again. In 1962 the European course wasn’t taught. Then Peter Lavan arrived in 1963 to replace Ivo Schoffer. He was a London graduate.
19:04 Not long after IB, Bert Hallam arrived in 1961. He was a medievalist from Cambridge (his wife Sylvia was an Anthropologist). He became Fred Alexander’s successor. Geoffrey Bolton to a second chair of History as part of the expansion after Fred Alexander retired.
20:06 IB stayed with Tudors and Stuarts until 1966 and worked increasingly with Fred Alexander until he retired. Taught and tutored British history with Fred Alexander and assisted with the Honours course.
20:37 Eventually in 1967 IB had his own course and began teaching his own Honours courses.
20:52 In 1961, the subjects being taught were decided by Professor Alexander. He was a “God” professor. The university at this time was largely run by a small group of professors. In 1961, the Professorial Board was a fairly small body.
21:46 IB a very junior member of the staff but on his first day in the Department he was taken to meet the senior officers of the University – acting Vice Chancellor, Harry Ware; then the Registrar and his deputy and the accountant. Felt very valued and welcomed.

Track 4
00:00 Many of the students in the early years were mature aged, male and female and part time. They came from all walks of life.
01:33 IB very impressed with some of the younger students who came straight from school. Many went on to have distinguished careers. Hugh Collins. Ian Copeland. Max Harcourt.
03:46 Two lecturers a week and one tutorial. Tutorial sizes at Oxford normally 2 to 1, at UWA it was 6 or 8 to 1. At these tutorials, one of the students would read out an essay. This practice later died out.
04:56 IB thought it was unusual that the teaching programme was published and tutorial topics and reading lists.
06:00 In Oxford it was not compulsory to attend lectures but it was standing room only for lectures by somebody of the calibre of AJP Taylor.
06:27 Discussion of Oxford tutorial system. Papers read by student and commented on but not marked. Learnt how to polish up the essay as you read it out. Always independent research.
08:23 Meant library had to have multiple copies of books. Different teaching environment. It was not the Oxford model but may have been that in Glasgow or Edinburgh.
09:13 Josh Reynolds a famous lecturer. Warden of St George’s College. Very spiritual. Graduate from Adelaide. Lectures held at the end of the Vice Chancery Building. Josh would walk across and start delivering his lecturers as he walked up the stairs to the lecture room wearing his old academic gown. Later gowns were discarded.
11:20 Fred Alexander also had his own style. Had been teaching since 1924. Some of the courses had not changed much in that time. In the years before IB arrived he believes that Fred had been catching up with recent reading. Very dynamic. An important figure both within the University and outside it.

Track 5
00:00 Conclusion by Julia Wallis

Interview 2

Track 1
00:00 Introduction by Julia Wallis

Track 2
00:00 Reflection on the 1960s expansion of UWA and the Department of History. Staff coming and going. Went from 6 staff members to around about 20 in a decade.
01:56 Fred Alexander’s foresight and pre-planning.
02:33 Changes to the Honours course over the years. 1960 new implementation for 1962 to move to 2 year programme of Honours and what the course entailed. Seminars ran over 5 terms.
07:10 Staff study leave issues.
08:11 Seeds developed by Fred Alexander and Frank Crowley.
08:47 1961 Fred Alexander future planning for the department. Separate department for Political Science with its own Chair.
09:48 FA also outlined more funding for senior tutors and areas that needed development such as Africa, America and 18th century European history. Recommended two more Chairs in History and suggested four amongst them being Modern, Medieval or Australian History.
11:25 Entrepreneurial character of Fred Alexander.
11:40 1964 – move from Chancery Building to new Arts Building and the completion of the first stage of the Reid Library.
12:16 Easier to hold tutorials in their own rooms in the Arts Building and to access their text books. Good for 8-10 students. Also space for new members of department even it was wasn’t on the same floor.
14:28 Morning tea used to be in Fred Alexander’s room. The new Arts Building had a common room and you could meet members of other departments.
16:04 Support staff
17:50 Building brought everyone together.
18:12 Lecture theatres were more modern and enabled the use of audio visual material. Lectures could also be recorded. This was important for the External Students.
20:59 Timetable had to incorporate part time and full time hours due to the number of part time students. At one time there were even lecturers on a Saturday morning. There were also a large number of married women who took their courses during the day.
22:42 A lot more younger staff arrived in the mid to late 60s and brought fresh ideas. In particular, Peter Reeves and Tom Stannage when he returned from Cambridge in 1971.
23:38 Teaching methods changed as the resources available improved. The development of the Reid Library was crucial at this time.
23:55 Fred Alexander recruited Leonard Jolley to be the new librarian from Glasgow University in 1959. Leonard Jolley regarded himself as a Scholar Librarian.
25:15 New people, new ways of teaching, new areas of study and research came together in the 1960s. The support of Leonard and his staff was integral to this process particularly in regard to the Arts. There was also funding available which helped to achieve these goals.

Track 3
00:00 Up until this time the History Department had not had its own library apart from the books donated by Bert Hallam. Academics in the History Department also made use of the Law library and the Fine Arts and Architecture library.
02:56 Leonard was able to supply multiple teaching copies and keep up with the amount of publications on the market. He was also able to obtain larger amounts of funding to support specialised topics such as 17th century studies or South Asian studies.
04:12 IB always took his 2nd and 3rd year students on a library tour in order to show them all the resources – reference works and collections (including microfilm and microfiche). Goldsmith Kress library of economic and social material going back to 17th century was a wonderful resource. They also had the reprints of British Parliamentary papers from the 19th century.

Track 4
00:00 Retirement of Fred Alexander 1966. One Professor was replaced by two – Professors Bert Hallam and Geoffrey Bolton.
01:30 Two very different men. Bert Hallam a Medieval historian. Agrarian history especially in East Anglia. Great range of knowledge. Very gregarious. Strong researcher.
05:53 Geoff Bolton a local boy returning. First class honours from Oxford.
07:15 The old regime had passed. Bert stayed for a long time. Geoff there from 1966 until 1973 when he became part of the Foundation team at Murdoch University.
08:40 Frank Crowley left in 1963 so Geoff was a boost to Australian history picking up where Frank left off. Then Brian de Garis and Tom Stannage.
10:55 Geoffrey was also looking at more broadly based course such as the Rise of the West. A forerunner to global and world history developed by Tony Barker and Judith Woodward. They took turns in being department head.
12:00 Iain Brash was the first non-professorial head of department

Track 5
00:00 Journal of University Studies established before WW2. First Economics and History. Later revived in 1953. Changed title to Western Australian History later. Underlined the amount of work done at Honours and Masters in WA history.
01:45 1961 – IB asked to edit this journal. Name changed to University Studies in History with a view to bring in more outside articles. Published work originally researched for honours or masters theses. Peter Boyce on Governors in WA in late 19th. Articles on colonial literature in WA and Goldfields literature by Beverley Smith.
07:47 Other people then published it. The final issue was in 1970 when the foreword said from now on the journal would be dedicated on papers in South Asian history. Reflective of what was happening at the time (1960s-1970s). Arrival of Peter Reeves in 1963. Then Hugh Owen.
09:70 Peter Reeves returned to UWA as Professor in 1974. Some others obtained positions in the Eastern States or went to WAIT which later became Curtin. Curtin became a Centre for work on South Asia although the staff at the universities worked together. Frank Broeze who came in the 1970s worked with these groups. Developed into Indian Ocean Studies Inter university co-operation.
11:18 Perhaps a precursor to inter disciplinary studies that later took place.

Track 6
00:00 The experience of students in 1960s and 70s with regard to course work and examinations. Marking. The exam was the dominant determinant of the students’ results.
03:08 At this time it was 3 terms not semesters (1989). Whole of year courses.
03:39 Early 1970s – student participation in decision making. 1971 student representation at History department meetings.
05:38 Move to assessment of course work for final result. IB started using course work in assessment in 1973 (30% being course work). Later it became 40%.
07:05 Honours programme tied to the term structure and gave rise to issues

Track 6
00:00 Conclusion by Julia Wallis

Interview 3

Track 1
00:00 Introduction by Julia Wallis

Track 2
00:00 Interview to discuss three main aspects of academic life - teaching, research and administration
00:52 Issues in the 1970s – reduced University funding
01:30 How the Department responded to those challenges. Prof Peter Reeves Head of Department (appointed 1974 after Geoffrey Bolton left to join Murdoch University) produced a document identifying the problems: staffing, tutorial sizes, abolition of study leave replacements.
03:45 Peter Reeves put together a plan to meet these challenges – teaching the same subject for 2nd and 3rd year courses.
05:15 Introduced some new units 17th century England, Islam, History of the United States.
06:11 Programme came into effect in 1982. Successful.
06:30 1989 – 2nd and 3rd year units semesterised.
06:49 How IB became head of department. 1975 Senate resolution that the department head did not have to be a professor.
07:42 1977 History Department put together a procedure to establish the next head of department by ballot.
10:10 IB Head of Department 1981 to 1983. Succeeded by John Tonkin.
10:42 Significant change when Peter Reeves left to join WAIT (now Curtin) in 1985. A planning document drawn up. One important proposal was to establish the Centre for Western Australian History. Prime movers Tom Stannage and Brian de Garis. This was established in 1985. Self-supporting but became very successful.
12:29 The other important issue discussed in the Planning Document was that the second History Chair should be Australian History. The vacant chair was advertised and the successful candidate was Richard Bosworth.
14:16 Richard Bosworth teaching from 1987. People coming and going. Three retirements: Bert Hallam, Isobel Durack and Leslie Marchant. In 1990 Brian de Garis left for Murdoch. New arrivals were Norman Etherington, Charlie Fox, Philippa Maddern etc
15:32 Period of early 70s, now late 80s, next phase was around the time IB retired in 2001.

Track 3
00:00 IB found teaching the most enjoyable. Last time full time was 2000. Did his favourite topics. Two Honours – (1) Orange and Green and (2) Victorian Social History. For 2nd and 3rd year courses, IB taught British Social & Political History and tutored for Richard Bosworth in Hitler and the Holocaust.
02:57 Teaching IB enjoyed – Honours. Small group teaching.
04:14 Design of the course. Everyone in the class participated. Example of public health in the Victoria city.
07:28 Condition of agricultural workers in different parts of England.
08:05 First year teaching. From 1987 IB assisted Richard Bosworth in new unit. Study of historiography. What they wrote. Who they were. Why they wrote what they did. The importance of interpretation and criticism. History 102.
09:36 Richard Bosworth used extracts from the Goon Show and music. Discussion of distinctive lecturing styles.
10:40 Topics – 20th century – communism, fascism, etc AJP Taylor referred to as “God” of the course by Richard Bosworth. A demanding course for the first years but after a while the penny began to drop.
12:10 1997 – review of BA. Recommendation that the first year be semesterised. Richard Bosworth’s course had to be changed to fit the new pattern. It did not have the impact that the full year course had.

Track 4
00:00 Early experience of research as a school boy. 1955 British General Election. Study into educational background of new members of Parliament.
01:47 Oxford research on Gladstone material in British Museum.
02:16 What to research once in Perth. Learning Australian history while editing articles for University Studies.
03:16 1963 – 6 months study leave. Decided to do research in modern Scottish history. Travelled to UK by ship (6 weeks of this leave spent on ship).
04:55 Had a house in Edinburgh. Worked in national archives and visited private homes.
05:24 Background to publishing in 1974-75, a volume published by the Scottish History Society. In 1964 IB visited Dalkeith Palace belonging to the Duke of Buccleuch to study the Buccleuch papers. (They were since moved to Edinburgh). A treasure trove. The Reform Act – how can we rescue the situation? The papers demonstrated how they organised, raised money, got people to vote and manufactured fictitious votes.
[Papers on Scottish Electoral Politics 1832-1854, Scottish History Society, Fourth Series, Volume II (Edinburgh, 1974).]
09:31 Among the papers were a series of electoral surveys put together by Donald Horne, lawyer and agent of the Duke. IB thought they should be published in a volume to pull together the different papers with a story of the period and to include the surveys done by Donald Horne.
11:45 This became a substitute for not doing a PhD. The material was too rich to ignore.
13:20 Continued work on Scottish poll books. This was new research. IB did a lot of research but did not do enough publication.
14:40 Led to a publication in 1996 which posed the question - In the Scottish counties in 1832 who actually got the vote? A lot of detailed work for a 20 page article.
['The New Scottish County Electors in 1832: an Occupational Analysis', Scots and Parliament, edited Clyve Jones, Edinburgh University Press, 1996, 120-39.]

Track 5
00:00 The importance of administration.
01:08 Administration work for or on the Scholarship Committee 1975 to 1997. Firstly on Sub Committee ranking candidates for post graduate scholarships for candidates throughout the university. Some were candidates for overseas scholarships.
05:17 Member of the main committee1983 until 1988. From 1986 to 1988 IB was the Chairman of that Committee. As Chair there was always general business. Brian Cleary was the secretary.
07:07 Discussion of Academic Board administration and duties.
07:50 Administration became front and centre in the final part of IB’s career when he came Department Head from 1997 to 2000.

Track 6
00:00 1996 Philippa Maddern Head of Department (from 1993). From April 1996 IB approached to resume the headship.
01:37 Mid 1990s mounting problems for the Department – funding. Enrolments and staff costs.
03:12 Two main issues that dominated 1996 (1) funding issues; (2) review of the Bachelor of Arts degree.
04:32 December 1996 workshop on changes after review of BA. Change from terms to semesters for first year.
05:37 Australian studies introduced around this time.
05:53 Review wanted the department to look into generic skills to make the BA more useful. Course handouts on how a BA would enable you to develop useful skills. A requirement that felt ridiculous.
07:07 Practicum Tony Barker.
07:42 Structure of Honours programme reverted to 1961 days from two years to a one year 4th year programme after the pass degree. Historiography, two seminars and a dissertation counting for 50% final mark.
09:15 History Department had excellent staff but had 6 professors. Many were fellows of the Academy. Very good record in publication. Outstanding students. Many senior staff. Top heavy. Victims of their own success.
12:22 The budget was very much tied to enrolments especially at first year level. Then you had to ensure the students carried on into second and third year. Very successful in recruiting Honours students and after English had the highest post graduate school in the faculty. Students completed Masters and PhDs with distinction on a regular basis.
13:25 Some of the staff had health problems.
13:42 1997 to 1998 endless meetings and discussion as to how the History Department could resolve the problem of its debt. Talk of redundancies. Rumour of breaking up of department.
15:14 Staffing was central to the issue. The Review Committee were critical of the professors as a group as they did not play a large enough part in the running of the department. IB as head of department had to implement the recommendations which meant he remained head for 4 years and not 3.
18:02 A list of 15-20 recommendations. Some to do with changes to courses. Several different levels to review included changes to courses, changes to department, budgets and restricting.
19:45 The restructuring was tied to funding.
20:30 IB received a letter from the Deputy Vice Chancellor Alan Robson that by a certain date IB had to give him a plan of how they would deal with the staffing problem.
21:11 There were 2 early retirements. The Review was similar to what happened in the early 80s. New units, new approaches.
22:37 In 1999, they had to report on what they had done.
22:48 Immediately after the review the department had a meeting with the review panel who came from the Eastern States. They were told some rather painful home truths. Many of IB’s colleagues were very unhappy with this.

Track 7
00:00 Even before the panel left the department met to discuss how to respond. IB wrote a report on their progress. Well received - marked increase in enrolments in 1999 and a 33% increase in 2nd year enrolments.
01:07 1999 Tom Stannage left to take up a position at Curtin. He was not replaced.
02:02 IB suggested he present an annual report to the department that be incorporated into the Minutes. This had not been done before.
02:45 Annual Report written partly to deal with peoples’ issues. Threat of redundancy ever present but did not ever happen.
04:37 There were good things happening as well as the problems and the Annual Report helped to emphasise the successes of the staff and the students.
05:13 Visiting staff. Fred Alexander Fellowship enabled international scholars to visit for 2-3 weeks, deliver the Fred Alexander lecture and give seminars.
05:44 People sometimes came for the conferences.
06:23 Annual Reports were written in 1997, 1998 and 1999. Also an opportunity to thank the admin staff such as the departmental secretary, Muriel Mahoney.
07:28 Ironically some of the new units suggested by the Wise Men from the East did not get as many enrolments as the old units did.
07:52 IB is unaware of what the lasting consequences of the review were.
08:23 The review brought an end of Iain’s career and he gave up at the end of October 1999 and Professor Norm Etherington became head of department (now school). He kept teaching for another 8 years but took no more active part in departmental affairs.

Track 8
00:00 Chancellor’s Medal awarded in 2001. Ken Michael was then the Chancellor. IB received the medal at the graduation ceremony on 10 September 2001, the evening before 9/11.
02:02 Thoughts of leaving UWA for overseas or elsewhere. Discussion of offer from Christchurch, New Zealand. Considered moving to University of Aberdeen in 1968. [interruption by phone ringing]

Track 9
00:00 By this time Iain was senior lecturer and had 3 children and did not think a British salary was sufficient. Plus the family was happily settled in WA. After this, he did not look elsewhere. He came in 1961 for 3 years and stayed for over half a century!

Track 10
00:00 Conclusion by Julia Wallis



Brash, Iain, “Iain Brash interview, 7 September 2012, 14 September 2012 and 21 September 2012,” UWA Historical Society: UWA Histories, accessed May 30, 2024, https://oralhistories.arts.uwa.edu.au/items/show/10.